Contents
1.Beginning of bath is hodokoshiyoku of temple
2.Bath behavior of Kamakura, the Muromachi era
3.Bath of the Edo era
4.Society ground of Edo general public, maid at hot springs (yuna) bath and bath on the second floor
5.Sento of Edo bathes promiscuously
6.It is "improved bath" he from "pomegranate ro"


1: hodokoshiyoku of temple

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(bathroom of Lotus sutra temple)

 There was aggressive introduction policy of Prince Shotoku, and Buddhism brought over in the sixth century grew up to national religion rapidly. In the Buddhism, we preached act of charity of bathing and thought about washing dirt with important work of person who served Buddha.

There is text of a sutra which preached act of charity of bathing called "greenhouse religion". We remove seven disease when we prepare seven things (whether that you do not sleep nenka (is), clean water, *mame (sozu), soko (sokou), junhai (order), toothpick (toothpick), inner wear (good)) necessary for bathing and are written down in it when seven kinds of happiness are provided.

 It counted bath temple among one of the seven regular buildings of a Buddhist temple at temple, and hodokoshiyoku was performed flourishingly. Large bathhouse and bath temple are still left and leave reluctance of leaving at the time in Todai-ji Temple and Lotus sutra temple of Nara. Houses do not have bathroom, and is glad of times when there was not town hot water, hodokoshiyoku of temple for general public as well as religious meaning; put, and met. This will be because general public knew pleasure of bathing by hodokoshiyoku, or "bathhouse" where one of sento can be called buttocks in Kyoto comes up at end of the Heian era.


2: Bath behavior of Kamakura, the Muromachi era

th_2-4-2-Minamoto_no_Yoritomo
(Yoritomo Minamoto)

 Custom of hodokoshiyoku which began in the Nara era is included in the Kamakura era and becomes most prosperous.

 Above all, long-term hodokoshiyoku which 100-day hodokoshiyoku and Shogunate which (1192), Yoritomo Minamoto performed in Kamakurayama in oifuku of the rear Shirakawa pope in 1192 performed in memorial service of Masako Hojo is particularly famous and is written down to "Agatsuma mirror".

 Even if the Muromachi era begins, custom of hodokoshiyoku is inherited by the Shogunate and temple. hodokoshiyoku was called "act of charity baths" and we established the constant date and were behaved to general public.

 Furthermore, custom of hodokoshiyoku spreads out to individual. We felt bath of ryoshinoifuku at end every year, and Tomiko Hino of general Mrs. Yoshimasa Ashikaga invited relatives. It is celebrity on this occasion that served bath and meal.

 From these days, we invited person in house with bath and served bath and we opened tea ceremony and feast after bath and spent a fun time.

 This was so-called "bath behavior", and wealthy family treated neighboring people to bath at commons, and, also, believers gathered in temple dedicated to the Physician of Souls and Kannondo of in the village in district and we heated bath and entered, and "bath scheme" to do banquet in liquor, fish of bringing after bath was performed.


3: Bath of koko*dai

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(entrance of cleft)

 There is the first sento for record in "Keicho era memoirs" (annual 1614) in Edo saying "person called (1591) Yoichi Ise built sento bath in the bank of money pot bridge (zenigamebashi) (bridge which there was near current Tokiwa bridge) in 1591". It is about time when, in the next year when Ieyasu Tokugawa entered Edo, castle town was not set, too. Sento spread out so that it was said that "there is bath every town" in (the early 17th century) at the end of the Keicho era year.

 It was thought that the Edo's first sento was steam bath, but kind "closet bath" of steam bath came up before long. We dip knee into the bottom of the bathtub and pour hot water and dip lower part of the body, and the upper body is structure to steam with the steam. And we attached making a slip in drawing door to doorway of bathroom and prevented that the steam leaked. However, it is "pomegranate (zakuro) mouth" to have been devised as the steam flies if opening and shutting is intense.

 We put bathtub in chamber which received Mikata, and was surrounded with board and lowered board from ceiling to doorway low, and this prevented that the steam escaped. Bathers pass through this board and go in and out. By the way, it is wordplay peculiar to the Edo era to have come to call cleft. That it was in "(we see), and kogomi (enters) which stooped down, and took a bath" in those days in "kyo* (Mii) ru" and joke, "pomegranate ro" as we used fruit of pomegranate to polish mirror…….

 In addition, it is the time at the end of the Keicho era year that "suwari (we breathe) bath" which is submerged under plentiful hot water to neck like the present was done. Because it was bath of hot water, wooden bathtub is called "water (not crowded) bath" not steam and spreads out in home of general general public.

 Pour hot water into pail at first; cross, and was expression including, but can enter with pipe of iron in pail later, and method to cook fire in bottom is invented. This is called "firearms-shaped bathtub" and spreads out in the Edo era. On the other hand, we attached flat pot to the bottom of the pail, and there seemed to be many "Goemon bathtubs" which boiled hot water in Kansai.


4: Society ground of Edo general public, maid at hot springs (yuna) bath and bath on the second floor

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(state of public bathhouse with prostitutes)

 Sento of the Edo era excites from morning and terminates in signal of six ta (about 6:00 p.m.). Sento was place of rest of naked general public who could associate without distinction of top and bottom. We come to give liquid refreshments free to visitor in sento before long, and maid at hot springs (yuna) makes an outstanding performance. Because these maids at hot springs, lunch carry away back of visitor, but treat excursionist in hand with samisen after ta. This public bathhouse with prostitutes becomes sensation among gentlemen and youths of merchant's family.

 Meanwhile, one which was particularly popular "bathhouse with pretty bath girls." Was named from place called sento in Yashikimae of horitangoshu, but maid at hot springs called "Katsuyama" here is serious; of popularity;, as for "hot water of padded clothes, all were read at that time by hot flash" and senryu. In addition, we named manners and customs of men who gathered in this neighborhood and called "bold way of walking", and it was taken up by Kabuki.

In the public bathhouse with prostitutes, it is said that it was turnout as Yoshiwara red light district is deserted for the heyday in this way while it prospers.

 On the other hand, the Shogunate often gave ban for reasons of the public morals top, but most effect was in a few state. However, (1657), the Shogunate supervised public bathhouse with prostitutes thoroughly in 1657 and sent 600 maids at hot springs to Yoshiwara forcibly. Public bathhouse with prostitutes of Edo was abolished in this way.

 Sento was got close to afterwards as place of recreation and relaxation for Edo general public. The second-floor hall where maid at hot springs treated visitor was left open by bather and we drank tea and ate cake and came to be used once as society ground to enjoy Go, shogi.


5: Sento of Edo bathes promiscuously

The cleft inside
(the inside of cleft of the Edo era)

 "It included nyu () ri (come) saw, and sento of Edo was said to be hot water" and was man and woman mixed bathing. This continued until last years of Edo era. It is dark in cleft, and thing disturbing public morals is there being a lot of one, ban is started several times. However, actually, we did not readily reform, and, in the case of Reform of the Tempo Era (1841-43), the control was carried out strictly. As a result, we attached partition to the center of bathtub and distributed the bathing date and time of man and woman, and sento only in the ladies' bath appeared only in men's bath again, too.

 When the times change, and it is the life of Meiji, the Meiji government prohibits man and woman getting into hot water as old evil since the Shogunate particularly strictly and often starts notification. However, longtime manners and customs are not changed so easy. It was actually in the middle of the Meiji era that mixed bathing disappeared.


6: It is "improved bath" he from "cleft"

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(state of sento of the Meiji era)

 It was the Meiji era, and style of sento changed completely. Cleft was taken away, and steam omission was made on roof and did bathtub and board sink on plane, and washing space became much wider, too. This is called "improved bath" and becomes reputation. Raise some relationships of bathtub later, and dirt does not enter; is devised.

 When it is the Taisho era, sento is modernized more, and washing space of boarded place and wooden bathtub disappear; in tiling. And water supply-type carane is attached to hot water, water of bathroom in (1927) in 1927, and hygiene side improves, too.

 Various ideas are concentrated for facilities and service, and we install sauna, and we do and fix sports facilities, and unique facilities appear in air bubbles bath today.

 On the other hand, there are many people devising the bathing method at home eagerly, and holiday making of hot spring he is prosperous, too. Not only we say for merely cleanliness, but also Japanese is born "bath enthusiast" for "positive α" in bath.